A synthesis of laboratory and field studies on the effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize on non-target Lepidoptera.
JournalArticle (Originalarbeit in einer wissenschaftlichen Zeitschrift)
 
ID 484522
Author(s) Lang, A.; Otto, M.
Author(s) at UniBasel Lang, Andreas
Year 2010
Title A synthesis of laboratory and field studies on the effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize on non-target Lepidoptera.
Journal Entomologia experimentalis et applicata
Volume 135
Number 2
Pages / Article-Number 121-134
Keywords butterflies, moths, Zea mays, GMO, transgenic corn, side effects, non-target organism, review, Cry protein, risk assessment
Abstract

One of the major applications of transgenic crops in agriculture are the so-called Bacillus thuringiensis
Berliner (Bt) plants, in particular Bt maizes, which produce insecticidal Cry proteins that target specific
orders, such as the Lepidoptera or Coleoptera. We reviewed publications that reported on the
direct toxic effects of Bt-maize and⁄ or Cry proteins of current Bt-maize events on larvae of non-target
butterflies andmoths (Lepidoptera). In total, 20 peer-reviewed publications were identified, of which
16 papers contributed laboratory-based data and seven field-based data. An adverse effect on caterpillars was recorded in 52% of all laboratory-based and in 21% of all field-based observations. The variables most often studied and having the highest occurrence of effects were larval survival, body mass, and developmental time. Parameters of the adult stage were under-represented in the studies.Overall, 11 lepidopteran species were tested. The majority of the studies originated from the USA, with the Monarch butterfly being the most studied, whereas other species and other parts of the world were widely neglected. Laboratory experiments were often run under unrealistic conditions from an ecological point of view. Although the papers we reviewed indicated a potential hazard for Lepidoptera
that are exposed to and feed on lepidopteran-specific Bt-maize pollen, a general conclusion on the
level of risk for butterflies and moths cannot as yet be drawn. A comprehensive risk characterization
would require thorough hazard identification, exposure assessment, and impact assessment. However,
our review showed that even the basic level of hazard characterization is as yet incomplete. Reasons
for this are the still-limited numbers of publications and concurrent lack of knowledge, the
restriction of data to only a few species, the over-representation of North American species, and the
identified limitations of both laboratory and field experiments. The findings of this review suggest
that more realistic, ecologically meaningful, and detailed experiments and analyses are crucial to
improve the present assessment of Bt-maize cultivation effects on Lepidoptera.

Publisher WILEY-BLACKWELL
ISSN/ISBN 0013-8703
edoc-URL http://edoc.unibas.ch/dok/A5842179
Full Text on edoc No
Digital Object Identifier DOI 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2010.00981.x
ISI-Number WOS:000276404800001
Document type (ISI) Review
 
   

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