Inclusion and diversity in precision oncology are essential in reducing cancer disparities among racial and ethnic groups. However, present studies have favored the recruitment and participation of Whites, with limited applicability of their results to minority groups. Many reasons for their underrepresentation are downstream manifestations of structural racism. Therefore, this scoping review provides a precise mapping of recruitment and participation barriers for minorities in precision oncology that are associated with structural racism, including a critical appraisal of how disciplinary norms, paradigms, and tools used therein could inadvertently contribute to unforeseen inclusion and diversity challenges. Empirical and theoretical publications from Web of Science and PubMed were searched and analyzed to identify recruitment and participation barriers for minorities in precision oncology. In addition, using the public health critical race praxis (PHCRP) as guiding analytical framework, empirical studies were analyzed to identify unforeseen barriers resulting from simplification processes, assumptions, norms, paradigms, and tools used during the research process. One-hundred thirty-five barriers to recruitment and participation were identified or reported in included publications. They were subsequently categorized as being a manifestation of one of the following forms of racism, namely internalized, interpersonal, institutional, and structural racism. The PCHRP analysis revealed four additional factors to be considered in precision oncology studies in ensuring appropriate representation of their study populations. Future interventions aimed at reducing health disparities should focus predominantly on barriers associated with structural and institutional racism, which should then have ripple effects on other forms of racism. Importantly, the four factors identified through the PHCRP framework could further explain the lower participation rates of minorities in precision oncology and related activities. Therefore, they should be given due consideration by all stakeholders involved in the precision oncology ecosystem, from researchers and healthcare professionals to policy-makers, research ethics committees, and funders.