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Indoor monitoring of heavy metals and NO2 using active monitoring by moss and palmes diffusion tubes
JournalArticle (Originalarbeit in einer wissenschaftlichen Zeitschrift)
ID 4652601
Author(s) Zechmeister, H. G.; Rivera, M.; Köllensperger, G.; Marrugat, J.; Künzli, N.
Author(s) at UniBasel Künzli, Nino
Year 2020
Title Indoor monitoring of heavy metals and NO2 using active monitoring by moss and palmes diffusion tubes
Journal Environ Sci Eur
Volume 32
Number 1
Pages / Article-Number 156
Abstract Background; : Indoor pollution is a real threat to human health all over the world. Indoor pollution derives from indoor sources (e.g. smoking, gas stoves, coated furniture) as well as from outdoor sources (e.g. industries, vehicles). Long-term monitoring measurements in indoor environments are missing to a large extent due to a lack of simple to operate measuring devices. Mosses proved well as biomonitors in hundreds of studies. Nevertheless, indoor use has been extremely scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to determine indoor and outdoor pollution by active biomonitoring using moss as well as NO2 samplers to analyse outdoor and indoor levels of pollution. We exposed moss (Pleurozium schreberi) for 8 weeks indoors and outdoors in 20 households in the city of Girona, Spain. Al, Cr, Cu, Zn, Sn, Cd, Pb, Mo, and Sb were analysed by moss-samplers. Additionally, NO2 was measured with Palmes diffusion tubes.; Results; : Compared to the pre-exposure analysis, concentrations of almost all elements both on indoor and outdoor mosses increased. Except for Cd, all metals and NO2 had, on average, higher concentrations in outdoor mosses than at corresponding indoor sites. However, some 20% of the samples showed inverse patterns, thus, indicating both indoor and outdoor sources. Indoor/outdoor correlations of elements were not significant, but highest for markers of traffic-related pollution, such as Sn, Sb, and NO2. The wide range of indoor-outdoor ratios of NO2 exemplified the relevance of indoor sources such as smoking or gas cooking. Though mostly excluded in this study, a few sites had these sources present.; Conclusions; : The study at hand showed that moss exposed at indoor sites could be a promising tool for long-time biomonitoring. However, it had also identified some drawbacks that should be considered in future indoor studies. Increments of pollutants were sometimes really low compared to the initial concentration and therefore not detectable. This fact hampers the investigation of elements with low basic element levels as, e.g. Pt. Therefore, moss with real low basic levels is needed for active monitoring, especially for future studies in indoor monitoring. Cloned material could be a proper material for indoor monitoring yet never was tested for this purpose.
Full Text on edoc Available
Digital Object Identifier DOI 10.1186/s12302-020-00439-x
ISI-Number WOS:000598073800001
Document type (ISI) Article

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