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Multiple air pollutant exposure and lung cancer in Tehran, Iran
JournalArticle (Originalarbeit in einer wissenschaftlichen Zeitschrift)
ID 4646329
Author(s) Khorrami, Z.; Pourkhosravani, M.; Rezapour, M.; Etemad, K.; Taghavi-Shahri, S. M.; Künzli, N.; Amini, H.; Khanjani, N.
Author(s) at UniBasel Künzli, Nino
Year 2021
Title Multiple air pollutant exposure and lung cancer in Tehran, Iran
Journal Sci Rep
Volume 11
Number 1
Pages / Article-Number 9239
Mesh terms Aged; Air Pollutants, poisoning; Benzene, poisoning; Benzene Derivatives, poisoning; Environmental Exposure, statistics & numerical data; Female; Humans; Iran, epidemiology; Lung Neoplasms, etiology; Male; Middle Aged; Risk Assessment, methods; Toluene, poisoning; Xylenes, poisoning
Abstract Lung cancer is the most rapidly increasing malignancy worldwide with an estimated 2.1 million cancer cases in the latest, 2018 World Health Organization (WHO) report. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of air pollution and lung cancer, in Tehran, Iran. Residential area information of the latest registered lung cancer cases that were diagnosed between 2014 and 2016 (N = 1,850) were inquired from the population-based cancer registry of Tehran. Long-term average exposure to PM10, SO2, NO, NO2, NOX, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), and BTEX in 22 districts of Tehran were estimated using land use regression models. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to generate multi-pollutant exposure profiles. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to examine the association between air pollutants and lung cancer incidence. The districts with higher concentrations for all pollutants were mostly in downtown and around the railway station. Districts with a higher concentration for NOx (IRR = 1.05, for each 10 unit increase in air pollutant), benzene (IRR = 3.86), toluene (IRR = 1.50), ethylbenzene (IRR = 5.16), p-xylene (IRR = 9.41), o-xylene (IRR = 7.93), m-xylene (IRR = 2.63) and TBTEX (IRR = 1.21) were significantly associated with higher lung cancer incidence. Districts with a higher multiple air-pollution profile were also associated with more lung cancer incidence (IRR = 1.01). Our study shows a positive association between air pollution and lung cancer incidence. This association was stronger for, respectively, p-xylene, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, benzene, m-xylene and toluene.
ISSN/ISBN 2045-2322 (Electronic)2045-2322 (Linking)
Full Text on edoc Available
Digital Object Identifier DOI 10.1038/s41598-021-88643-4
PubMed ID
ISI-Number WOS:000656201900004
Document type (ISI) Journal Article

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