Artificial Iron Proteins: Modeling the Active Sites in Non-Heme Dioxygenases
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An important class of non-heme dioxygenases contains a conserved Fe binding site that consists of a 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triad. Results from structural biology show that, in the resting state, these proteins are six-coordinate with aqua ligands occupying the remaining three coordination sites. We have utilized biotin-streptavidin (Sav) technology to design new artificial Fe proteins (ArMs) that have many of the same structural features found within active sites of these non-heme dioxygenases. An Sav variant was isolated that contains the S; 112; E mutation, which installed a carboxylate side chain in the appropriate position to bind to a synthetic Fe; II; complex confined within Sav. Structural studies using X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods revealed a facial triad binding site that is composed of two N donors from the biotinylated ligand and the monodentate coordination of the carboxylate from S; 112; E. Two aqua ligands complete the primary coordination sphere of the Fe; II; center with both involved in hydrogen bond networks within Sav. The corresponding Fe; III; protein was also prepared and structurally characterized to show a six-coordinate complex with two exogenous acetato ligands. The Fe; III; protein was further shown to bind an exogenous azido ligand through replacement of one acetato ligand. Spectroscopic studies of the ArMs in solution support the results found by XRD.