Hypertension, diabetes and lifestyle in the long-term - results from a Swiss population-based cohort
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Healthy lifestyles are integral in preventing and treating common cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to observe smoking habits, alcohol intake, physical activity and body mass index over a 10-year period in a population-based cohort, particularly focusing on participants with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Included were 4155 participants from the first (2001-2003) and second (2010-2011) follow-ups of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Disease in Adults (SAPALDIA). Information was collected via health questionnaire; height and weight were measured. In a healthy lifestyle score one point was attributed per criterion; non-smoking, low risk alcohol consumption, BMI<25kg/m(2), and regular physical activity. Overall in 2010-2011, 16.4% were smokers, 7.7% had at risk alcohol consumption, 25.5% were physically inactive and 57.8% were overweight or obese. Both those with hypertension and diabetes had lower mean healthy lifestyle scores than those without disease. Women with incident hypertension from 2001 to 2011 had lower odds of improving their healthy lifestyle score during this time period compared to those without this disease. In contrast, women with incident diabetes had higher odds of lifestyle score improvement. In men, neither hypertension nor diabetes was associated with change in lifestyle score. Our findings suggest that, irrespective of disease status, preventative attention is needed, particularly in regards to physical activity and bodyweight. These needs could be met by population-based interventions, a necessary and suitable option in both preventing and treating the non-communicable disease epidemic which currently faces countries worldwide.