Is age at menopause increasing across Europe? : results on age at menopause and determinants from two population-based studies
JournalArticle (Originalarbeit in einer wissenschaftlichen Zeitschrift)
 
ID 1195984
Author(s) Dratva, Julia; Gómez Real, Francisco; Schindler, Christian; Ackermann-Liebrich, Ursula; Gerbase, Margaret W.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Svanes, Cecilie; Omenaas, Ernst Raidar; Neukirch, Françoise; Wjst, Matthias; Morabia, Alfredo; Jarvis, Deborah; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Zemp, Elisabeth
Author(s) at UniBasel Zemp Stutz, Elisabeth
Schindler, Christian
Ackermann-Liebrich, Ursula A.
Probst Hensch, Nicole
Dratva, Julia
Year 2009
Title Is age at menopause increasing across Europe? : results on age at menopause and determinants from two population-based studies
Journal Menopause
Volume 16
Number 2
Pages / Article-Number 385-394
Keywords Epidemiology, Determinants of menopause, Female sex hormones, Menopause, Secular trend
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variability and determinants of menopause age in two European cohort studies, the European Respiratory Health Survey and the Swiss Air Pollution and Lung Disease in Adults Cohort. METHODS: Age at menopause was estimated in 5,288 women, aged 30 to 60 years, randomly selected in nine European countries between 1998 and 2002. Determinants of natural and surgically induced menopause were investigated by Cox regression and heterogeneity by meta-analysis. Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels were assessed in a subsample. RESULTS: A quarter of the women were postmenopausal by age 50.8 years. Median age of natural menopause was 54 years. Hormone levels were within expected ranges for premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Surgically induced menopause was highly prevalent (22%-47%), associated with earlier timing of menopause. Determinants of earlier menopause were current smoking (hazard ratio [HR], 1.59; 95% CI, 1.27-1.98), body mass index greater than 30 kg/m (HR, 1.32; 95%, CI, 1.02-1.70), and low physical activity (HR, 1.37; 95%, CI, 1.12-1.67). The determinant for later menopause was multiparity (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.62-0.89). Predictors were similar for naturally and surgically induced menopause. Oral contraceptive use yielded heterogeneous effects on timing of menopause. Later birth was associated with later menopause (HR, 0.934; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96). This evidence of a secular trend is heterogeneous across countries. CONCLUSIONS: Age at menopause varies across Europe, shifting toward higher ages. This secular trend seems paradoxical because several adult determinants, that is, overweight, smoking, sedentarity, and nulliparity, associated with early menopause are on the rise in Europe. The heterogeneity of the secular trend suggests additional country-specific factors not included in the study, such as improved childhood nutrition and health, that have an influence on reproductive aging.
Publisher Lippincott
ISSN/ISBN 1072-3714 ; 1530-0374
edoc-URL http://edoc.unibas.ch/dok/A5843245
Full Text on edoc No
Digital Object Identifier DOI 10.1097/gme.0b013e31818aefef
PubMed ID http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19034049
ISI-Number WOS:000264064100025
Document type (ISI) Article
 
   

MCSS v5.8 PRO. 0.329 sec, queries - 0.000 sec ©Universität Basel  |  Impressum   |    
04/12/2022