Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a live-threatening opportunistic infection that is best described in haematological patients with prolonged neutropenia or graft-versus-host disease. Data on IA in non-neutropenic patients are limited. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence, disease manifestations and outcome of IA in non-neutropenic patients diagnosed in five Swiss university hospitals during a 2-year period. Case identification was based on a comprehensive screening of hospital records. All cases of proven and probable IA were retrospectively analysed. Sixty-seven patients were analysed (median age 60 years; 76% male). Sixty-three per cent of cases were invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), and 17% of these were disseminated aspergillosis. The incidence of IPA was 1.2/10 000 admissions. Six of ten cases of extrapulmonary IA affected the brain. There were six cases of invasive rhinosinusitis, six cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, and cases three of subacute pulmonary aspergillosis. The most frequent underlying condition of IA was corticosteroid treatment (57%), followed by chronic lung disease (48%), and intensive-care unit stays (43%). In 38% of patients with IPA, the diagnosis was established at autopsy. Old age was the only risk factor for post-mortem diagnosis, whereas previous solid organ transplantation and chronic lung disease were associated with lower odds of post-mortem diagnosis. The mortality rate was 57%.